Have-nots and want-nots - a taxonomy of voluntary and involuntary non-users

Sebastian Greger

About 10 years ago, technology researchers started to discuss voluntary non-use in contrast to the prevailing assumption that non-use is an involuntary state.

In their 2002 book chapter “They came, they surfed, they went back to the beach: Conceptualizing use and non-use of the internet”, Sally Wyatt, Graham Thomas and Tiziana Terranova suggest a “taxonomy of non-use” - a model to classify non-users that is so comprehensive it has not lost any of its relevance when discussing these issues today.

A simple, yet all-embracing, classification

The primary model consists of a two-dimensional matrix with a binary division:

  • “have-nots” who are involuntarily excluded vs. “want-nots” who are voluntarily excluded, and
  • those who never used vs. those who stopped using after being users before.
Matrix illustration of the taxonomy of non-use as described by Wyatt, Thomas and Terranova (2002).

Applying the model leads to four groups of non-users:

  • the “excluded” who don’t have access, regardless if they want it or not,
  • the “expelled” who are former users who do not have access any more,
  • the “resisters”: people who are not willing to use a technology, and
  • the “rejecters”: former users who decided to not use the technology any longer.

Active vs. passive; global vs. partial

In addition, the paper contributes two more concepts that are of help in the discussion of non-use.

On the one hand, the authors make a distinction between “passive avoidance” and “active resistance”, describing the fact that not using a technology can be either a passive behaviour (avoiding use) or in its stronger form an act or resistance (a motivated effort not to use it).

On the other hand, Wyatt et al. differentiate between non-use of an entire system and of specific parts of it - this is of particular relevance as it acknowledges the complex reality of technology as encountered by people, which is rarely a binary issue of yes or no.


Wyatt, S., Thomas, G., & Terranova, T. (2002). They came, they surfed, they went back to the beach: Conceptualizing use and non-use of the internet. In S. Woolgar (Ed.), Virtual society? (pp. 23-40). Oxford University Press.